If there is one word that best captures Singapore, it is “unique”. A dynamic city rich in contrast and colour, you'll find a harmonious blend of culture, cuisine, arts and architecture. Brimming with unbridled energy, this little dynamo in Southeast Asia embodies the finest of both East and West. A single day will take you from the past to the future, from exotic ethnic enclave to efficient business centre, from serene gardens to sleek skyscrapers.
The Republic of Singapore is an island city-state located at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The microstate lies 137 kilometres north of the equator, south of the Malaysian state of Johor and north of Indonesia's Riau Islands. At 710.2 square km, Singapore is the smallest nation in Southeast Asia and by orders of magnitude, the largest of the three remaining sovereign city-states in the world (the others being Monaco and Vatican City).
Singapore consists of 63 islands, including mainland Singapore. There are two man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia - Johor-Singapore Causeway in the north, and Tuas Second Link in the west. Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's many smaller islands. The highest natural point of Singapore is Bukit Timah Hill at 166 m.
The south of Singapore, around the mouth of the Singapore River and what is now the Downtown Core, used to be the only concentrated urban area, while the rest of the land was either undeveloped tropical rainforest or used for agriculture. Since the 1960s, the government has constructed new residential towns in outlying areas, resulting in an entirely built-up urban landscape.
Singapore has on-going land reclamation projects with earth obtained from its own hills, the seabed, and neighbouring countries. As a result, Singapore's land area grew from 581.5 square km in the 1960s to 704 square km today and may grow by another 100 square km by 2030. The projects sometimes involve some of the smaller islands being merged together through land reclamation in order to form larger, more functional islands, such as in the case of Jurong Island.
Singapore has a tropical rainforest climate with no distinctive seasons. Its climate is characterized by uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Temperatures range from 22°C to 34°C. On average, the relative humidity is around 90% in the morning and 60% in the afternoon. During prolonged heavy rain, relative humidity often reaches 100%. The lowest and highest temperatures recorded in its maritime history are 19.4°C and 35.8°C respectively. June and July are the hottest months, while November and December make up the wetter monsoon season. Singapore does not observe daylight saving time. The length of the day is nearly constant year round due to the country's location near the equator.
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